Gender differences in cardiology professionals: A Latin American Survey




Grecia I. M. Raymundo-Martínez, Cardiology Fellowship Training, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología “Ignacio Chávez”, Mexico City, Mexico
Gabriela P. Alanis-Estrada, Research Fellowship, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología “Ignacio Chávez”, Mexico City, Mexico
Diego Araiza-Garaygordobil, Coronary Care Unit and Emergency Department. Instituto Nacional de Cardiología “Ignacio Chávez”, Mexico City, Mexico
Itzel V. Delgado-Cruz, Research Fellowship, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología “Ignacio Chávez”, Mexico City, Mexico
Rodrigo Gopar-Nieto, Cardiology Fellowship Training, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología “Ignacio Chávez”, Mexico City, Mexico
Alejandro Cabello-López, Occupational Health Research Unit, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Mexico City, Mexico
Pablo Martínez-Amezcua, Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, USA
José A. Arias-Godínez, Departamento de Ecocardiografía, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez, Ciudad de México, México


Background: Gender-based differences among cardiology professionals have been reported in North America and Europe. However, the perspective of Latin American cardiologists remains unexplored. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to analyze the gender gap perspective among cardiologists from Latin America. Methods: A cross-sectional study using an online survey directed to Latin American cardiologists from five different cardiology societies. The survey included questions on demographic data, professional development in the field of cardiology, and perceived barriers in clinical practice. Results: A total of 240 professionals were surveyed, of which 41.7% were women (100) and 58.3% were men (140). The majority of women tend to work in the subfields of clinical cardiology and cardiovascular imaging. Women were underrepresented as heads of departments, earn less, and report less work satisfaction than men. The barriers that female cardiologists face at their workplace include labor discrimination, sexual harassment, family-related concerns, and lack of career development. Conclusions: The survey points toward the prevalence of a gender gap among cardiologists in Latin America, which is primarily driven by labor discrimination, sexual harassment, family-related concerns, and lack of career development among female cardiologists. Actions aimed at addressing this issue should be considered by different parties.



Keywords: Gender inequality. Cardiology. Latin America.